360buy.com started its B2C business in 2004. Since then, the company has experienced a remarkable increasing rate of over 200% for seven consecutive years. This record has been hardly seen in the entire Chinese e-commerce industry. In 2011, the company has become one of the Top 3 B2C companies in China with more than 5.07 billion U.S. dollars sales per year and 36.8% market share (excluding B2C platform companies). Nowadays, the company has more than 40 million users and around 6,000 suppliers offering a comprehensive list of high quality products. Around 300,000 customer orders are processed daily with more than 50 million page views performed..
The 2011 flooding in Thailand was the worst flooding crisis in five decades that swamped through 65 of Thailand’s 77 provinces. Throughout the course of the flood, social media emerge as the alternative path for people in Thailand to access up-to-date and accurate information, reconnect with families and friends, offer mutual supports and sustain a feeling of security. However, the usefulness of social media remained obscure when information credential was in question, access was an issue and knowledge was deficient. This case serves as the doorway for discussion of the adoption of social media in crisis as well as its associated opportunities and challenges..
It was February 10th, 2013 and also the Chinese New Year. Most employees at Haier Group (Haier) were enjoying the holiday and the Haier Industrial Park seemed extraordinarily empty. Mr. Zhou, the EVP and also the CMO of Haier, did not go for the vacation and was standing alone in front of his office windows. As one of the primary decision makers, he had to figure out the next year’s strategy of the electronic mall in a week. Should he reinforce the extant mass customization strategy or turn to the individual customization strategy? He had been wavering between the two options for almost two months. When this issue came to his mind, he could not help thinking about the development of Haier as well as the Chinese home appliance industry.
China’s ticketing industry has undergone rapid growth over the past decade. Since the advent of the widespread digital distribution of music, music record labels have reported a considerable decline in sales. This turmoil in the music industry has caused record companies and artists worldwide to rely on live performance as their main source of revenue, which resulted in an abundance of performances and concerts.
In Singapore, all working citizens, together with their employers, are required by law to contribute a percentage of their monthly income to the Central Provident Fund (CPF), a social security savings plan established in 1955 for the purpose of providing financial security for the people of Singapore in their retirement. Today, the CPF has evolved into a comprehensive social security savings package that encompasses the retirement, healthcare, home ownership, family protection and asset enhancement needs of Singaporeans. The money in a citizen’s CPF account can be used for housing, insurance, healthcare and investment prior to retirement, and when the citizen retires, he/she would receive a monthly retirement stipend paid out from their own accumulated CPF savings.
The Asian Tsunami Disaster case study illustrates how an organization may improvise and deploy resources and capabilities in response to crisis. The fact that crises may not repeat themselves and a given crisis solution might not be directly applicable to another crisis represents radical shifts in routines. As such, an organization may have to improvise when putting together a set of resources and capabilities in response to crisis. The case study highlights several resources and capabilities and suggests how these resources and capabilities may be mobilized during dynamic crisis situations.
Leveraging Digital Business Ecosystems for Enterprise Agility: The Tri-logic Development strategy of Alibaba.com
According to the latest statistics from the web traffic tracking agency Compete, Alibaba is one of the world’s largest B2B e-commerce portals with over 2.6 million unique visitors per month. Alibaba’s business centers on providing a trading platform that connects international buyers to millions of small-medium enterprises (SMEs) in China that supply a kaleidoscopic array of products, ranging from agricultural products to aircraft parts. But since its inception, Alibaba has diversified into a wide range of businesses ranging from a consumer-to-consumer (C2C) online auction website (Taobao), an Internet portal (Yahoo China), an online review website for lifestyle products and services (Koubei), and an online advertising trading platform (Alimama). Incidentally, according to the web traffic tracking agency Alexa, these spin-offs, together with Alibaba, are all among the top 100 most popular websites in China, a considerable achievement that belies Alibaba’s humble origins.
Enabling Agility through Routinized Improvisation in IT Deployment: The Case of Chang Chun Petrochemicals
Chang Chun Petrochemicals (CCP) is the oldest petrochemical firm in Taiwan. It started as Chang Chun Plastics Co in 1949 for the purpose of manufacturing a form of engineering plastic known as the Phenolic Molding Compound. Over the years, CCP gradually increased the variety of its product offerings and expanded its production facilities to meet the increasing demands of the global market as its business grew exponentially through joint ventures and technology licensing. Today, CCP is an international company that provides a broad range of products from engineering plastics and electronic chemicals to molding materials. CCP owns more than 10 subsidies, with Chang Chun Petrochemical Co, Chang Chun Plastics Co and Dairen Corporate being the three major ones. By 2007, CCP had successfully built business relationships with more than 15,000 customers located in 111 countries and offered more than 100 categories of products. It currently has more than 4,500 employees worldwide and an annual revenue of about US$4.6 billion, making it the one of the largest privately-owned petrochemical firms in the country.
The history of the modern tobacco industry in China can be traced over a hundred years when a group of American traders established the first cigarette factory in the city of Tianjin in 1891. Although domestic cigarette production began in the city of Guangzhou just eight years later, foreign tobacco firms maintained their market leadership in the Chinese tobacco industry for over 50 years until the Communist Revolution led to the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. In the immediate years following the establishment of the PRC, all the existing tobacco firms were brought under government control as the Chinese government sought to unify the tobacco industry under a system of centralized management and monopolistic operations. It was these circumstances that led to the birth of STC. The initial manifestation of STC was a private tobacco firm named Etsong Tobacco Company that was subjected to a government takeover in 1952. It was renamed Shanghai Cigarette Factory when it became the largest and only cigarette factory of the city of Shanghai in 1960.
Neusoft: The company is a leading IT service provider in China, with 15,000 staff and 9,000 clients. Less than 2 decades ago, the company was merely a startup incubated at Northeast University with fewer than 10 people – two university professors and their graduate students.
SAP China: SAP is an internationally renowned IT service provider, with 47,000 employees and clients in over 120 countries. It has multiple subsidiaries across the world, each with their own dynamics. This study focuses on the China subsidiary, which was set up in 1997 to support clients in Asia Pacific and Japan, with the primary focus on Japan
Achieving and Enhancing E-government Integration: Lessons from the Land Data Hub Project of the Singapore Land Authority
The Singapore Land Authority (SLA) was formed in 2001, as a statutory board under the Singapore Ministry of Law. Serving as the national land registration authority, one of the responsibilities of SLA is the management and maintenance of the national land information system, LandNet. Today, there are 15 government agencies participating in LandNet to share and reference land data in their daily operations. Some of these daily operations include land use planning and infrastructure development. These agencies include the Ministry of Law, the Housing & Development Board (HDB), the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA), the Land Transport Authority (LTA), the National Parks Board (NParks) and SLA. With LandNet, land data is now shared online in real-time. This facilitates efficient and quick decision-making and strategic planning.
Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA) Company Limited manages the main airport of Beijing, China. The main airport of Beijing owned by BCIA consists of three terminals namely, Terminal 1, 2 and 3. Terminal 1 was built in 1990 occupying around 90,000 m2. Terminal 2 is 3.7 times larger (336,000 m2) than Terminal 1 and was completed in 1999 to take over Terminal 1 while it was closed for refurbishment. Terminal 1 reopened in 2004 at about the same time where the construction of Terminal 3 began. Constructed specially for the 2008 Olympics Games, Terminal 3 occupies a colossal space of 986,000 m2. When completed in March 2008, Terminal 3 was the largest airport terminal in the world.
China Mobile was incorporated on April 20, 2000 and is currently the world�s largest mobile telecommunications provider in terms of network size, number of customers and market value. Listed on both the Hong Kong and New York stock exchanges, China Mobile currently holds assets in excess of US$135 billion and ranks 77th in the Fortune Global 500 list (Fortune Magazine 2010). With the State-Owned Asset Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) of the Chinese Government as its largest shareholder, China Mobile has established an extensive network of subsidiaries in 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and directly-administered municipalities across China and currently commands a 70.6% market share in the domestic telecommunications market. It has an estimated 150,000 employees and serves a customer base of over 600 million worldwide.
On 27th March 2009, the �Haier Hammer� had been collected by National Museum of China as national relic. This hammer was used by the CEO of Haier, Ruimin Zhang to smash 76 newly produced refrigerators that were found to have serious defects in 1985. His radical action tremendously aroused the workers. and managers. awareness of product quality. Haier Group started as the Qingdao Refrigerator Plant in the early 1980s and nearly filed for bankruptcy after a few years of establishment due to deficit financing of up to 1,470,000 RMB (US$ 230,000). In 1984, the current CEO of Haier, Ruimin Zhang, took over the company and began to make fundamental management changes at Haier, especially focusing on quality control. From then on, Haier Group has gradually established itself as a world-renowned brand with excellent quality and services. Today, Haier Group is the world.s 4th largest manufacturer of white goods and one of China.s top 100 IT companies. By 2010, the 26-year-old Haier had successfully built its production and sales network to include 30 overseas factories and manufacturing bases, 18 research and development centers, 10 industrial parks, 58,800 sales offices and 96 product group categories, ranging from refrigerators and washing machines to computers and televisions. It currently has more than 50,000 employees worldwide and achieved annual revenue for 2010 of US$ 20.7 billion.
BTC is a well known retail brand in the UK, comprising businesses operating principally in retailing, manufacturing and marketing health and personal care products. Close to 12.5 million people visit the 1400 BTC stores throughout the UK every week, making BTC one of the most accessible brands with a presence in virtually every town, shopping center and major transport interchange in the country. Before 1996, customer service for BTC stores was performed by disparate customer service units located within store clusters known as Business Centers. A “Customer Service Complaint Handling Review” conducted in 1996 found that the decentralized structure was inadequate in supporting BTC’s operations.
LG Electronics, Inc. (formerly known as Lucky-GoldStar) was a subsidiary company of LG Group that was established in 1958 by developing the nation’s first radio, as the pioneer in the Korean consumer electronics market. By 1965, LG Electronics was producing transistor radios for export to Latin America. In 1967, the company became a pioneer in the energy sector in South Korea when it established Honam Oil Refinery and the company was the first in the country to produce refrigerators.
As a serviceman transitions through his NS lifecycle, taking on the roles of a pre-enlistee, a NSF, and an NSman in succession, he will require the administrative services provided by the various agencies of MINDEF. These services may include registration for NS, notification of overseas travel, the booking of dates for the annual Individual Physical Proficiency Tests (IPPT) and application for deferment from NS. Yet, with hundreds of different transactions provided by over 60 different agencies available, coordinating the administrative processes that underlie the needs of the servicemen was complex, paperwork-intensive and tedious.
UKC is a UK municipal borough with an elected council that serves a local population of 221,000 residents and provides a large range of services. The idea of e-government originates from the UK central government’s 1999 white paper, Modernizing Government which challenged all public sector organizations to achieve “citizen-centered services”, by integrating policies and programs, “joining-up” delivery, harnessing the power of IT, and getting the best out of staff. The White Paper committed the government to the “use of new technology to meet the needs of citizens and business and not trail behind technology development”.
Chio Lim Stone Forest’s (CLSF) strength is to provide the highest quality professional services to its clients. Owing to its reputation, CLSF has not only managed to expand its clients profile locally, but also recently expanded its business to China riding on the opportunities arisen from the country’s liberation of economy. To better support its fast-pace business activities, CLSF adopts the strategic use of organizational resources to outperform its rivals. Operating as a small-and-medium enterprise (SME) under the influence of rising fuel prices and inflationary pressure, CLSF has to be very cautious of its strategies for sustainable future expansion and developments.
Metropolitan borough council, referred to with the pseudonym of BMBC, is a UK municipal borough with an elected council that serves a local population of 221,000 and provides a wide range of services. The borough is divided into 19 wards and is represented by 57 councilors. The council aims to maximize the wellbeing of the people at the borough in the following areas: education, the local economy, transport, the environment, health and social care, housing, crime prevention and control, and leisure.
South Korea’s Supreme Court Registry Office (SCRO) has 49 district registry offices incorporated in the 13 district courts. The core function of SCRO is to manage the nation’s land and residency registration and related legal issues. Each registry office has three divisions: ‘Administrative’, ‘Correction and Investigation’, and ‘Public Access’. The Administrative Division provides application services and serves as a public contact point. The Correction and Investigation Division evaluates the legitimacy of application documents. Finally, the Public Access Division handles public requests for registry documents. The rationale behind the initiation of the e-government project at the SCRO is to provide efficient public services to the citizens.
“After the SARS crisis, we conducted debriefing sessions to evaluate the key factors of managing crisis and documented the lessons learned. In terms of the involvement in the Defense Technology Ecosystem, we participated extensively in several collaboration projects, and leveraged our partner organizations’ expertise. Such collaborations are important in helping to bring our IT expertise to the next level.” – Manager from the Defense Science and Technological Agency (DSTA)
Maxima Inc. (a pseudonym) is a Singapore-based holding company started in 1993 by the CEO, Mr Chen and six of his associates. It started off as a seven-man start-up company, and over the years, it has grown to a successful business with staff strength of 280 by 2000. Maxima’s primary business revolves around the distribution of electronics and the provision of solutions for IT industries. Maxima Inc. has five subsidiaries under its corporate umbrella, namely, Maxima Components, Maxima Technology, Maxima Electronics, Maxima Investment Pte. Ltd., and Maxima Networks Pte. Ltd.
TechCo was a multinational organization with businesses in the financial services, oil, transportation and manufacturing industries across 190 countries. TechCo supported its international operations via global Intranet and IT infrastructure. However, TechCo soon realized that is existing IS were no longer on par with worldwide e-commerce developments. A decision was thus taken to adopt ERP to integrate the diverse needs of its fast changing and growing business.
Property Co was founded in Australia in July 1991 to manage industrial estates for tenancy and maintenance matters. The company managed approximately 4,000 industrial tenanted properties. Property Co’s online auction site was an example of a successfully designed customer-centric IS application because the entire design process focused on the aim of developing customer-centric capability. The transformation from a traditional bidding system to the new online auction system resulted in time savings, enhanced service quality and generated major financial benefits such as reduced loss of revenue due to vacant premises. The rapid turnover of vacant units translates into early realization of rental revenue, conservatively estimated at AUD$14 million per annum. In addition, the project achieved positive Return on Investment (ROI) within 13 months of its set-up.
Hardwarezone.com (HWZ) is the most popular IT media website in Singapore. Its business centers on providing localized news and information on the latest IT products, as well as numerous services; which includes consolidated price lists of the major IT vendors in Singapore, a classified ads directory and an online discussion forum. HWZ attracts 330,000 unique browsers and more than 32 million page visits every month, a considerable achievement given that Singapore; with its small domestic market, is a country that has seen little success in the e-commerce arena. The unprecedented nature of HWZ’s success even prompted the most widely circulated business newspaper in Singapore to compare its two founders to Larry Page and Sergey Brin of Google, enthusiastically proclaiming HWZ’s founders as “Singapore’s very own Google Guys”. By 2004, it was estimated that HWZ controlled 29.7% of the Singapore IT publications industry. In comparison, CNET Asia, in second place, only had a 9.9% market share.
In 2000, the Singapore government initiated the e-government Action Plan to make all government services to be available online. The government provides funding to its agencies to support their efforts to implement e-government systems. Here, we describe the implementation of 2 separate e-government systems by a single Singapore government agency. For reasons of confidentiality, the identity of this agency and the two e-government systems are assigned the pseudonyms of SINGA, SINGA-ALPHA and SINGA-BETA, respectively.
The Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA) was formed as a new Statutory Board on 1st April 2004 through the merger of the Registry of Companies and Businesses (RCB) and the Public Accountants Board (PAB) with the mission to “provide a responsive and forward looking regulatory environment for companies, businesses and public accountants, conducive to enterprise and growth in Singapore”. Simply put, the BizFile System is the flagship IT system of ACRA as it incorporates all the major transactional e-services as well as the backend enterprise database of ACRA. Primarily, the BizFile System supports the operational functions of ACRA in terms of the registration and renewal of businesses and companies licenses as well as the selling of these business and company information. Correspondingly, these operation falls under the purview of the Business Unit, Company Unit and the Information Resource Division in ACRA. Although other divisions in ACRA do utilize the BizFile System in their daily operation, their utilization is mainly for administrative purposes.
The Shanghai government initially merely had several specialized stand-alone information systems and a basic online presence. Thus, when the central Chinese government advocated the use of IT in the public sector in the late 1990s, the Shanghai municipal government jumped at the opportunity to implement more dynamic and interactive systems, and concurrently boost the municipality’s economy and position in China’s transformation efforts. Their initial aim was to implement an all-in-one municipal-wide social security card system. The Shanghai project began in September 1998 and would last three years. The Shanghai Municipal Informatization Commission championed and coordinated efforts during this project, via an empowered project team, with support from the mayor and vice mayor of Shanghai and the Chinese central government. They also collaborated with one of China’s top universities and a prominent local electronics company to implement the system. The project began with the streamlining of back-office processes and exploration of feasible technological solutions. An administrative institution was even set up to manage the system, while policies were laid out as part of the legal and regulatory framework guiding the project. Subsequently, information was disseminated as required in a top-down fashion throughout the municipality, and the project team adopted a modular approach in rolling out the system. Finally, this e-government system and model was replicated across other municipalities and provinces in China.
The LTA was officially established on September 1, 1995 through the merger of four public sector entities; namely the Registry of Vehicles, the Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, the Roads & Transportation Division of the Public Works Department and the Land Transport Division of the former Ministry of Communications (now renamed as the Ministry of Transport). It is currently a statutory board under the Ministry of Transport and is tasked to spearhead land transport development in the island state of Singapore. It oversees the long-term land transportation planning in Singapore and it also looks after the transportation needs of all road users, including those who drive and those who take public transport. The ultimate goal of LTA is to ensure ‘a smooth and seamless journey for all’. LTA aims to deliver a land transport network that is integrated, efficient, cost-effective and sustainable to meet the nation’s needs. It also targets to plan, develop and manage Singapore’s land transport system to support a quality environment while making optimal use of the transport measures and safeguarding the well-being of the traveling public. The other objective of LTA is to develop and implement policies to encourage commuters to choose the most appropriate transportation mode.